Jame: Motivation and Organizational Goals Essay

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Pages: 20

CHAPTER 14 Leadership: is the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of goals. MANAGEMENT is the use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members. HISTORY OF LEADERSHIP: Traditional - Trait – Behavioral – Contingency (Followers, Positive, Dark Side)[Parenthesis is Contemporary]. TRAIT THEORIES are theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from non-leaders. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES are theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate effective leaders from ineffective ones. OSS (Consideration (creating mutual respect or trust and focuses on a concern for group members’ needs and desires) and Initiating Structure (organizes and defines what group members should be doing to maximize output)) vs. U of M (Behavioral differences between effective and ineffective leaders)[Consider action and Initiating Structure, vs. Relationship Oriented and Production Oriented]. CONTINGENCY THEORIES states that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. Best course of action is dependent on the internal and external situation. FOLLOWER THEORIES – this has to do with the In-group (PARTNERSHIP; if the workers like the leader they consider him part of the “group”) and the Out-group (NO MUTUAL TRUST; leader doesn’t get along well and is considered external to the “team/group”). TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP leaders are those who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by the clarifying role task requirements. It focuses on interpersonal interactions between managers and employees; we have Contingent Reward, Management by Exception (Active), Management by Exception (Passive) – “I don’t do anything until you do something wrong”, and Laissez-Faire – “Avoidance of leadership”. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP leaders are leader who motivate employees to transcend self-interests to pursue organizational goals and to perform beyond expectations. It transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over self-interests; we have Inspirational Motivation (inspire and motivate through emotional and support appeals; Strong vision based on values/ideals), Idealized Influence (Gains respect and trust through charisma; high standards of moral and ethical conduct), Intellectual Stimulation (Awareness of problems & solutions; stirs imagination; encourages divergent thinking), and Individualized Consideration (gives personal attention; treats each employee individually; coaches, advises). It is positively related to Important Outcomes: performance, effectiveness, job satisfaction, leader satisfaction, organizational commitment, and follower motivation. LEADER TRAIT is a physical or personality characteristic that can be used to differentiate leaders from followers. Effective leaders have: Intelligence, dominance, self-confidence, level of energy and activity, and task-relevant knowledge. Bad leaders have: incompetent, rigid, intemperate, callous, corrupt, insular, and evil. IMPLICIT LEADERSHIP THEORY is the idea that people have beliefs about how leaders should behave and what they should do for their followers. LEADERSHIP PROTOTYPE is a mental representation of the traits and behaviors that people believe are possessed by leaders. SITUATIONAL THEORIES propose that the effectiveness of a particular style of leader behavior depends on the situation. APPLYING SITUATIONAL THEORIES, (1) Identify important outcomes, (2) identify relevant leadership types/behaviors, (3) Identify situational conditions, (4) Match Leadership to the conditions at hand, (5) Determine how to make the match. SHARED LEADERSHIP entails a simultaneous mutual influence process in which individuals share responsibility regardless of formal roles. SERVANT LEADERSHIP focuses on increased service to others rather than to oneself. Fielder effectiveness depends on the appropriate match between leadership…